The Bronislaw Malinowski Award is presented to an outstanding social scientist in recognition of efforts to understand and serve the needs of the world's societies, and who has actively pursued the goal of solving human problems using the concepts and tools of social science during one's entire career. Each nomination should follow the criteria for selection set forth by the SfAA.
The nominees should be of senior status, and should be widely recognized for their efforts to understand and serve the needs of the world through the use of social science. The nominees should be strongly identified with the social sciences. They may be within the academy or outside of it; but their contributions should have implications beyond the immediate, the narrowly administrative, or the political.
The Awardee should be willing and able to deliver an address at the annual meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology. The nominees should include individuals who reside or work outside of the United States.
Each nomination should include:
A detailed letter of nomination that describes the accomplishments of the nominee in relation to the criteria of the Award. The letter of nomination would normally have several authors and signatoriesA comprehensive curriculum vitae.Letters of support (no more than three). Letters of support should supplement and complement the letter of nomination. In general, letters of support discuss one or more aspects of the nominee’s career with more detail or data than the letter of nomination. These letters should be gathered by the nominator(s) and enclosed with the packageA sample (maximum of five) of products which may include, but are not limited to, traditional scholarly writing. Products may include publications, policy reports, speeches, videos, promotional campaigns, policies, laws, or other products that are rooted in social science but may be broader than the traditional journal article or scholarly book, publications representing the candidate’s best work. We discourage the submission of bound books and suggest instead that the nominator(s) send a copy of the title page, table of contents, and a representative chapter. The packet may also include (within reason) copies of the title page and tables of contents of additional journal articles, manuals, and/or applied reports.
Nominations are valid for five years from the date of nomination. Remember that making a nomination requires more than just suggesting the name to a committee member. Please note the requirements spelled out above. This is an important award and deserves the attention of every member of our society.
Nominations should be sent to the Chair as soon as possible. The deadline for nominations is December 15. You might also encourage others to get involved in the nomination process by nominating someone else or furnishing a letter of support.
Please send all nominations to: Chair, Malinowski Award Committee, SfAA, P.O. Box 2436, Oklahoma City, OK 73101-2436. Email: email@example.com.
Spero M. Manson, Ph.D. (Pembina Chippewa) is Distinguished Professor of Public Health and Psychiatry, occupies the Colorado Trust Chair in American Indian Health, and directs the Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health in the Colorado School of Public Health at the University of Colorado Denver’s Anschutz Medical Center. His programs include 10 national centers, which pursue research, program development, training, and collaboration with 250 Native communities, spanning rural, reservation, urban, and village settings across the country. Dr. Manson has acquired $250 million in sponsored research to support this work, and published more than 250 articles on the assessment, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of physical, alcohol, drug, as well as mental health problems over the developmental life span of Native people. His numerous awards include the American Public Health Association’s prestigious Rema Lapouse Mental Health Epidemiology Award (1998), 3 special recognition awards from the Indian Health Service (1996, 2004, 2011), election to the Institute of Medicine (2002); 2 Distinguished Mentor Awards from the Gerontological Society of America (2006; 2007); the Association of American Medical Colleges’ Nickens Award (2006); the George Foster Award for Excellence from the Society for Medical Anthropology (2006), and the National Institutes of Health Health Disparities Award for Excellence (2008). Dr. Manson received his baccalaureate degree in Anthropology from the University of Washington (1972), as well as masters (1975) and doctoral degrees (1980) in Anthropology from the University of Minnesota. He is widely acknowledged as one of the nation’s leading authorities in regard to American Indian and Alaska Native health.
As the nominators of Professors Massey and Durand note in their letter, neither scholar is a stranger to accolades and either could stand alone in nomination for the Malinowski Award. That being said, however, the nominators argue that as a result of a long collaboration on a topic of international policy concern at this point in human history, it is fitting that they be recognized jointly for their contribution.
Among the many accomplishments of Massey and Durand, the nominators emphasize first the Mexican Migration Project, which they describe as the single most important project ever devised on this topic.
This project combines ethnographic and survey research techniques to collect annual data from a variety of communities, including demographic and migration data for households. The research sample communities range from rural hamlets to urban areas, which vary in local economy and ethnic composition. After surveying households in Mexico and determining where migrants have traveled to in the United States, follow-up interviews are conducted in those U.S. communities to gather additional data. This is truly a unique data-set that is made publicly available to other researchers as well as institutions engaged in the policy debates surrounding migration. The scholarly impact of this project can be gauged by the number of joint publications that Massey and Durand have produced, starting with seven monographs published by major university and foundation presses. In addition, there are literally scores of articles that these two researchers have published describing this important topic, as well as theses, dissertations, articles, and books generated by other investigators drawing on these data. It is a singular resource in the study of migration.
While designing, conducting, and writing from the Mexican Migration Project would be enough for two careers, Professors Massey and Durand are recognized as distinguished scholars and applied social scientists based on their other contributions. Both are members of the National Academy of Sciences, Professor Massey having been elected in 1998 and Professor Durand having been named a Foreign Associate in 2004. Professor Massey is well-known for his research on race and ethnicity in the U.S., with books and articles on racial discrimination and socioeconomic inequality that span two decades. He is also a well-respected methodologist with a focus on survey research.
Professor Durand has had an equally distinguished academic career, both in Mexico and through invited lectures and guest appointments in the U.S. and Europe. He has carried out primary research on iconography and social movements in Mexico in addition to his research on migration. His books examine the history of Mexican migration to the U.S.; the use of the Spanish language in the U.S.; international migration throughout the Americas; the U.S. labor market and guest worker programs; and, transnational families, among other topics.
In detailing their scholarly achievements, it is important not to minimize the applied impact of their research. They have served as advisors in numerous settings where policy, especially regarding issues of migration, is debated and formed. This includes committees of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. National Research Council, the U.S. Census Bureau, the Urban League, and others.
Louise Lamphere is a Distinguished Professor of Anthropology Emerita at the University of New Mexico and Past President of the American Anthropological Association. Her first major publication was Woman, Culture and Society co-edited with Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo (1974). And her book on Navajo family life, To Run After Them: The Social and Cultural Bases of Cooperation in a Navajo Community, was published in 1977. She has studied issues of women and work for 25 years, beginning with her study of women workers in Rhode Island industry, From Working Daughters to Working Mothers (1977). She also coauthored a study of working women in Albuquerque entitled. Sunbelt Working Mothers: Reconciling Family and Factory (1993) with Patricia Zavella, Felipe Gonzales, and Peter Evans. Finally, She co-edited with Helena Ragone’ and Patricia Zavella a collection of articles entitled Situated Lives: Gender and Culture in Everyday Life (1997).
Professor Lamphere’s interest in migration is reflected in two collections from Structuring Diversity: Ethnographic Perspectives on the New Immigration (1994) and Newcomers in the Workplace (1994). Her most recent book is a biography of three Navajo women entitled: Weaving Women’s Lives: Three Generations in a Navajo Family, (2007).
More recently, Professor Lamphere has been conducting research on Medicaid Managed Care Reform and Behavioral Health Reform in New Mexico. She is particularly interested in the impact of privatization on Native American and Hispano health-care consumers and on women who work in the front-lines of health care delivery (medical assistants, nurses, case managers). She has edited a special issue of Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Providers and Patients Respond to Medicaid Managed Care: Ethnographic Insights from New Mexico, (2005), as well as co-authored several articles.
Medical anthropologist and physician Paul Farmer has dedicated his life to improving health care for the world's poorest people. He is a founding director and the Chief Strategist of Partners In Health (PIH), an international non-profit organization that since 1987 has provided direct health care services and undertaken research and advocacy activities on behalf of those who are sick and living in poverty. Dr. Farmer began his lifelong commitment to Haiti in 1983 while still a student, working with dispossessed farmers in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Over the past twenty-eight years, PIH has expanded operations to twelve sites throughout Haiti and ten additional countries around the globe. The work has become a model for health care for poor communities worldwide: Dr. Farmer and his colleagues in the U.S. and abroad have pioneered novel community-based treatment strategies that demonstrate the delivery of high-quality health care in resource-poor settings.
Dr. Farmer holds an M.D. and Ph.D. from Harvard University, where he is the Kolokotrones University Professor and the Chair of the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School; he is also Chief of the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston.
Dr. Piven is both a scholar and an activist who has had a long and productive career devoted to understanding and addressing problems of the human condition. Dr. Piven is both a sociologist and a political scientist, and one who has made major contributions to both disciplines and held offices in both fields. Few social scientists have compiled such a record in two disciplines. Her work has not escaped notice in anthropology circles, and she was invited to give the keynote address at the joint conference of the American Ethnological Society and the Society for Urban, National, and Transnational /Global Anthropology in 2011. Dr. Piven's career, spanning over 50 years, has focused on issues related to poverty, socialjustice, and political power. Her work has been influential in the development of social policy inthe US with regard to poverty programs and voter participation.
Dr. Piven's academic career is centered in the social sciences. Her academic credentials include a Masters Degree in city planning from the University of Chicago (1956) as well as a PhD in social science from the University of Chicago (1962). Starting in the late 1950s, she has held a variety of social science academic positions at Columbia University's Department of Public Law and Government (1958-60) and School of Social Work (1962-1972), Boston University's Department of Political Science (1972-1975; 1976-1982), and the City University of New York's Brooklyn College Department of Political Science (1975-1976). Since 1982 she has been a distinguished professor of Political Science at the City University of New York's Graduate School and University Center. Dr. Piven has also been a Visiting Professor/Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Vienna (1978, 1982), Hebrew University (1981), University of Iowa (1986), University of California Santa Barbara (1987), Arizona State University (1987), Pacific University (1987), University of Wisconsin (1991) and University of Oregon (2000). She was a Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington (1979). Dr. Piven's work is widely recognized in social science academic circles. Her academic writing has included approximately 150 articles in journals and books published since 1965.
Dr. Piven's work grows out of her interest in the structure of power in American communities and the tools that are available to citizens to impact policy. Starting in the 1960s, this interest focused on the engagement of poor people in the political process. She and her late husband and colleague, Dr. Richard Cloward, were pioneers in social science research on poverty in the US. Piven and Cloward published an article in The Nation in 1966 describing a political strategy for addressing poverty based on their theory of interdependent power. The emerging National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO), a national advocacy organization for welfare rights, adopted Piven and Cloward's interdependent power strategy in 1966, and both were active in the organization for many years. Their translation of their scholarly work into public policy led Drs. Piven and Cloward to found Human SERVE (Human Service Employees Registration and Voter Education), an electoral reform project in 1982. Human SERVE sought to increase voter participation among the poor by advocating for the removal of institutional barriers to voter registration at the state and local levels, making registration available in settings that are frequented by poor people- in welfare and unemployment offices and in private sector agencies that provide services to the poor. Drs. Piven and Cloward viewed Human SERVE's programs " ... as a series of experiments guided by theories of political change"
Dr. Durrenberger is an esteemed senior scholar who is widely recognized for his applications of social science methodologies to understand and serve the needs of the world. His long career boasts field work in Northern Thailand, Iceland, Turkey, North Carolina, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, and Iowa. His prolific publication record includes seminal articles in the American Anthropologist, the American Ethnologist, Field Methods, Culture and Agriculture, Ethnos, and the Annual Review of Anthropology to name only a few. His long list of books and book chapters includes studies on agriculture, labor, fishing territories, class, globalization, theory and methodology, archaeology, religion, politics and public policy.
Paul Durrenberger serves on the editorial boards of Maritime Anthropological Studies, Journal of Anthropological Research, Journal of Political Ecology, the Society for Economic Anthropology, Journal for the Anthropology of Work, and Culture and Agriculture. Dr. Durrenberger regularly contributes to the academic and non-academic community with reviews, reports, opinion editorials and commentaries. He is also a regular featured guest on National Public Radio, bring anthropological insights to bear on current events and issues. Paul Durrenberger has earned research grants from the prestigious Ford Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the Fulbright Foundation, as well as numerous other grants. His awards include recognition for excellence in teaching and the Robert McNetting Prize of the Political Ecology Society for an article judged to best advance research in that field. He is widely recognized for his scientific contributions within his discipline and among academic administrators and political activists.
Anthony Oliver-Smith is Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Florida with affiliations with the Center for Latin American Studies and the School of Natural Resources and Environment at that institution. He held the Munich Re Foundation Chair on Social Vulnerability at the United Nations University Institute on Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany for 2007-8.
Dr. Oliver-Smith has done anthropological research and consultation on issues relating to disasters and involuntary resettlement in Peru, Honduras, India, Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, Japan, and the United States. He has served on the executive boards of the National Association of Practicing Anthropologists and the Society for Applied Anthropology and on the Social Sciences Committee of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. He is also a member of La Red de Estudios Sociales en Prevención de Desastres en America Latina and is on the editorial boards of Environmental Disasters, Sociological Inquiry and Desastres y Sociedad.
His work on disasters has focused on issues of post-disaster aid and reconstruction, vulnerability analysis and social organization, including class/race/ethnicity/gender based patterns of differential aid distribution, social consensus and conflict, and social mobilization of community-based reconstruction efforts. His work on involuntary resettlement has focused on the impacts of displacement, place attachment, resistance movements, and resettlement project analysis. He is the author, editor or co-editor of 8 books and over 50 articles and book chapters on these topics.
Born in Brooklyn, New York at the height of the Great Depression, 1929.
There were a large number of professional musicians on my mother's side of the family, and we always had a grand piano which my mother and I played, but never professionally, though both of us took lessons. During high school and my early college years I taught piano privately and at the Henry Street Music School, where my teacher was the head of the Piano Department. I checked coats at Carnegie Hall during part of my High School years so that I could hear most of the concerts. It soon became evident that there were many pianists far more talented than I and I decided it would not be a career for me.
Married my high school sweetheart, Zelda, just before my 20th birthday and before her 22nd birthday. During our high school, college, and post-graduate years we were part of a very close social and political group of friends. I graduated from the City College of New York and Zelda graduated from Queens College, another city supported college. Both of us were anthropology majors.
Admitted to the Ph.D. program at Cornell University in 1950. A joint Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Teaching assistant to Prof. John Adair, an expert on the Navajo and also trained professionals for work in Developing Countries.
Went to Vicos, Peru , June 1953 to start Ph.D. research. Zelda stayed with her mother and father in New York City until our son, David was born. They joined me in Vicos in October 1953.
Returned to New York in mid 1954 and with no job and no funds for write-up. Moved in with my wife's parents and took a job with the New York City Department of Welfare (we were called "social investigators").
1955-1961 took job with the Washington, D.C. Office the Human Relations Area Files. Contributed to 6 published country monographs, as chief author on 1, co-author on another, and acknowledged as a major contributor to the other 4 monographs .
1956. Our daughter, Margot, was born in Washington, D.C. .
Submitted, Defended and Awarded my Ph.D. on Vicos, 1961.
Additional Personal items:
Zelda and I ride a tandem bicycle. We use it as a commute vehicle to work at Stanford, for local errands and have toured with it in the U.S. and France.
We are avid dancers to live ragtime and dixieland jazz.
I was an active single tennis competitor for many years but have had to give it up.
We have two loving children, a son and a daughter, who have enriched our lives.
Select Academic and Applied Positions
Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia-CIESAS, Senior Research Professor.
Consejo Nacional de Evaluación en Política Social, Councilor
Universidad de Granada España, Visiting Professor
World Bank, Consultant and Social Analyst for NGO´s
Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia.-CIESAS, Director Regional Pacífico Sur
University of Arizona and Texas Tech University, Fulbright Scholar
CECODES (Centro de Ecodesarrollo). Project Head
INI (Instituto Nacional Indigenista) General Director
Secretaria de Educacion Publica, Direccion General de Educacion Indigena, Director General
Select Honors and Scholarships
Jean J. Schensul, an interdisciplinary medical/educational anthropologist, is Senior Scientist and Founding Director at the Institute for Community Research, Hartford, CT, founded and named in 1987. Born a Canadian, she completed her B.A. in archeology at the University of Manitoba, , and her MA and PhD at the University of Minnesota. Her dissertation on education and development in central Mexico, “Educacion para el Futuro y el Futuro de Educacion” was published by the Mexican Government. Dr. Schensul has devoted her career to the uses of anthropology to address social injustices and inequities. A vision of social justice in which the tools of social critique and social inquiry are equally distributed and applied to personal and social transformation drives her work as an anthropologist and organizational innovator. She believes that creating socially and intellectually open community and organizational spaces and activities that bridge and transcend cultural, ethnic and class boundaries are the foundation for learning environments that allow people with different approaches and styles to enjoy exploration and the excitement of participating freely in transformative social and cultural innovations in democratic societies.
From 1978 – 1987, as Deputy Director and a co-founder of the Hispanic Health Council in Hartford, CT. U.S.A., she built its research and training infrastructure in Hispanic health related issues, as well as leading national studies in tobacco use, reproductive health, multilevel mental health interventions and HIV. In 1987, she became the founding director of the Institute for Community Research, an innovative, multimillion dollar, community research organization, conducting collaborative applied research in education, cultural studies and folklore, Participatory Action Research and multilevel intervention research in the U.S., China and India.. The Hispanic Health Council and the Institute for Community Research manifest and operationalize her research and social justice values and ideas at the organizational level. Through the hard work of teams of scholar/activists, these community research institutions have had wide reaching influence on social, cultural and health related transformations in Connecticut, elsewhere in the U.S. and internationally as well as on new ways of linking communities and universities in action-oriented community engagement models.
Dr. Schensul’s research cuts across the developmental spectrum, addressing contributions of ethnography to disparities and structural inequities in early childhood development, adolescent and young adult substance use and sexual risk, reproductive health, and chronic diseases of older adulthood. She is the recipient of more than twenty mixed methods or qualitative National Institutes of Health research grants, as well as other federal, state, and foundation grants. Bilingual in Spanish, she has worked in Latin America, South Asia, and in East and West Africa and for a decade, with collaborators in India on HIV and substance use. In recent years, she has expanded ICR’s active research program to India, joining forces with government, NGO and community networks to build ethnographic and mixed methods research capacity, and to attract NIH funding to study the effects of alcohol and tobacco on HIV risk and women’s reproductive health.
Dr. Schensul has organized or participated in many conferences and workshops on community engagement in research and scholar activism. She has over eighty five peer-reviewed journal articles, and seven edited substantive special issues of journals including Anthropology and Education Quarterly, AIDS and Behavior, American Behavioral Scientist,and the American Journal of Community Psychology. Her collaborative work in research methodology is reflected in a book (with Don Stull) entitled Collaborative Research and Social Change, the widely celebrated seven volume series, The Ethnographers' Toolkit, with Margaret LeCompte, and in other articles and book chapters on ethnography and advocacy, community building, applied educational anthropology and sustainability of interventions.
Internationally known for research and service to marginalized communities she (with Stephen Schensul) was the recipient of the Kimball Award for Public Policy Research in Anthropology awarded biannually by the American Anthropology Association). In 2010, she received the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for Lifetime Achievement in Anthropology awarded by the Society for Applied Anthropology. She has served as president of the Society for Applied Anthropology and the Council on Anthropology and Education and is an elected board member of the American Anthropological Association. Dr. Schensul holds adjunct faculty positions in the Departments of Anthropology and Community Medicine, University of Connecticut, and is a research affiliate at Yale where she teaches qualitative research methods in HIV/AIDS. She consults to universities and community organizations on community engagement and methods in community based research. Committed to linking anthropology with other disciplines, she is active across disciplines working together with community psychologists, prevention researchers, and public health participatory research activists to develop interdisciplinary transformations favoring social justice, and community – university engagement models.
Prof. Weaver grew up in Northeastern New Mexico a few miles from the Texas border. This part of the state is an expansion of the Texas Panhandle plains with its small ranching towns extending westward into rolling hills, volcanic terrains, and mesas, and gaining elevation less than 100 miles away from the Rocky Mountains. Weaver was born in Greenville, New Mexico into a family of ranchers, farmers, and sheep men, who in the late 1800s had become cowboys, railroad builders, and in the 1930s builders of the economy and society of these small towns.
Weaver’s ancestors were explorers and settlers of the Southwest, coming first in the 1500s as descendants of Spaniards mixed with other ethnicities. There were also Mountain Men hunters of buffalo, bears, and beaver wintering in Taos. There were men escaping the aftermath of the Civil War, explorers of the Rocky Mountains and the West, Americans looking for adventure, for new homes. Planning to go West, they instead fell in love with the land and the women, settled and became some of his ancestors.
Before World War II Weaver’s father moved them to Dalhart, Texas from Clayton, New Mexico and then to Raton at the foot of the Rockies. Here Weaver went to high school where he played football, ran track, was in the Drama Club, became an Eagle Scout, and joined the National Guard, becoming a master sergeant and captain after going to officers school in Fort Bliss. Meanwhile, he married Dora Martinez from Raton. Then he went to the University of New Mexico for bachelors and masters degrees, and to the University of California at Berkeley for a PhD.
After Weaver’s teaching assistantship ran out at Berkeley and before he received his Ph.D., he became executive secretary of the California Commission of Indian Affairs and wrote his first monograph on the social and economic problems of California Indians. His first teaching jobs were in medical schools in Lexington, Kentucky and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania after which in 1969 he joined anthropology at Arizona as director of the Bureau of Ethnic Research (later renamed the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology). This was after he had relinquished the directorship for a professorship in the department of anthropology.
The most memorable research at Arizona was with American Indians in economic and political research, border studies, a bi-national team study of Mexican migration, and the Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Also memorable was the economic and political organization of the Gila River Indian Community in a study that provided background information for their work in developing their economy, later including industrial parks, a recreational lake, casinos, and hotels. Another was the first border town study of Douglas and of Nogales, Arizona, and of the Pyramid Lake Paiute in Nevada. Out of this work came monographs and books on urban anthropology, Indians of Arizona, social issues in the United States (To See Ourselves), Indians of the Greater Southwest (in Spanish), and much later edited books on the Anthropology of Hispanic Cultures in the United States and on Malinowski.
Weaver continued the inquisitive and questioning bent of his ancestors and has enjoyed exploring new lands in Mexico (Indians, migration, forestry, and economic development), Peru, Chile, Argentina (the last two on biodiversity and medical anthropology), Spain (border studies in Extremadura and the Basque country), and as a tourist in Europe, Canada, and the United States while attending professional meetings or chasing grants.
Since his retirement, Weaver has co-edited a book on Neo-liberalism and Commodity Production in Mexico, is at work on a book on the Ecology of Globalization, an interdisciplinary project on the impact of Tuberculosis on indigenous undocumented workers in Sonora and Arizona, and has returned to writing poetry, which is a lifelong passion.
The Society for Applied Anthropology is pleased to announce that Orlando Fals Borda has been selected as the recipient of the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for 2008.
Professor Fals Borda is best known for developing the theory and methodology of Participatory Action Research (PAR), now widely used by applied anthropological, educational, and medical practitioners working with local communities and taught in academic and training settings. He has combined pathbreaking academic production and institutional leadership with social and political activism on behalf of, and working with, disempowered groups. This has earned him an international reputation as a scholar-activist.
Orlando Fals Borda was born in Barranquilla, Colombia, on July 11, 1925. After high school in Barranquilla, he studied English Literature and History for his B.A. at the University of Dubuque, graduating in 1947. He was taught by prominent Latin Americanists Lowry Nelson, at the University of Minnesota, where he took his M.A. in 1953, and T. Lynn Smith, at the University of Florida, where he earned his Ph.D. in Sociology in 1955. After graduating with his Ph.D., Fals Borda worked in Brazil as a consultant for the Organization of American States. Returning to Colombia, he was the Director General for the Ministry of Agriculture from 1959 until 1961. In 1957, along with Camilo Torres Restrepo, he founded the Faculty of Sociology at the prestigious Universidad Nacional de Colombia, becoming the faculty’s first dean and continuing in that role until 1967. He is known as the “father” of sociology in Colombia.
Fals Borda’s work in the 1960s was concerned with studying and directing social change. He helped form Juntas de Acción Comunal, local community boards. In his writings, he intended to shock polite Colombian society by revealing the existence of everyday violence. In 1966-67, he was a visiting Professor of Sociology in the Institute of Latin American Studies at Columbia University. From this period came his work on the resistance of the popular classes in Colombian history. At this point, Fals Borda left the academy, becoming Director of Research for the United Nations’ Research Institute on Social Development in Geneva until 1970. From the 1970s, he devoted himself full-time to independent research and activism, working mainly with impoverished rural communities and local activist organizations, especially in the Atlantic Coast region. It is out of this experience that Fals Borda developed his PAR approach.
From 1970-75, Fals Borda directed the Fundación y Acción Social. In the 1980s, his base was as the president of the Consejo de Educación de Adultos de América Latina, a highly politicized popular education organization. Since the 1990s, Fals Borda has been both involved in formal politics as a critic of the state of political-economic affairs. He was involved in the process to construct the 1991 Colombian constitution, and in 1991 he became a member of the Colombian National Constituent Assembly.
Besides serving as President of the Research Committee on Social Practice of the International Sociological Association, Fals Borda has won several awards, including a John Simon Guggenheim Foundation award, the Hoffman Prize from the United Nations, the Kreisky Prize from Austria, and the Medal of Order of Boyacá, Colombia. He has been awarded Doctor Honoris Causa degrees from the Universidad Central de Venezuela, the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and universities of Boyacá and Antioquia.
Fals Borda’s work has been recognized and lauded by his colleagues. In 1986, the Colombian Sociological Association had a special roundtable on Fals Borda’s work. In 1990, a film was made by the University of Calgary. In the fall of 2006, several organizations in Colombia put together a homage to Fals Borda with the converence “Seminario Investigación, Etica y Política: Homenaje a Orlando Fals Borda.” And an Interntional Symposium on “Action Research Education in Contexts of Poverty” at the Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá, Colombia, is scheduled for May 2007.
Fals Borda has left applied anthropologists and other applied researchers with an important legacy in his published interventions on the origins, epistemology, and implementation of PAR. These include such articles and book chapters as “Power/Knowledge and Emancipation” (1996), “Participatory Action Research in Social Theory: Origins and Challenges” (2001), “A North-South Convergence on the Quest for Meaning,” “The Application of Participatory Action Research in Latin America,” and “Participatory Action Research in Colombia: Some Personal Feelings” (1997). Besides his own reflections, the debt owed to Fals Borda’s work has been acknowledged by scholars working on PAR in a wide range of disciplines in a wide range of contexts.
Gretel Pelto was born and raised in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Her undergraduate education was at Bennington College, where she majored in dance and literature; she completed a BA in Sociology (1963) at the University of Minnesota, followed by an MA (1967) and Ph.D (1970) in anthropology from the University of Minnesota. In 1996 she was also awarded an honorary doctorate in nutrition from the University of Helsinki, in recognition of her work in furthering the development of nutritional anthropology in Finland. She was awarded Fellow status in the American Society for Nutrition in 2005. Her primary academic appointments have been in nutrition departments: (University of Connecticut: 1976-1992; Cornell University: 1999-present) where her teaching focused on maternal and child nutrition, community nutrition, and most recently, program planning and policy. From 1992-1999, she was in charge of behavioral research in the Division of Child Health at the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Her field research has centered mainly in Mexico, and she has also been associated with studies in other parts of the world: in Latin America, in Asia (China, Viet Nam, Philippines, Pakistan) and in (Cameroon, South Africa, Tanzania). The substantive focus of her research is on infant and young child feeding and household management of illness in infants and children. Her theoretical and social focus is on the interface between programs (including intervention design and evaluation) and families and communities. Throughout her career she has taken an active role in fostering applied nutritional and medical anthropology through journal editing, service on national and international research and policy committees, and in anthropology and nutritional organizations.
The Society for Applied Anthropology is pleased to announce that Michael Horowitz has been selected as the recipient of the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for 2006.
The Malinowski Award, initiated by the SfAA in 1973, is a career achievement distinction presented each year to an outstanding social scientist. The award recognizes and honors a career dedicated to the goal of solving human problems through the application of concepts and tools from the social sciences. Prior awardees include Gunnar Myrdal, Margaret Clark, Everett C. Hughes, Sol Tax, Elizabeth Colson, Sir Raymond Firth, and recently, Carlos Velez-Ibañez, Pertti Pelto, and the late John Bennett.
In 1973 Congress rewrote the Foreign Assistance Act, shifting American foreign aid from capital intensive, urban-and industrial-based interventions to a focus that sought to make the rural poor its prime beneficiaries. Sub-Saharan Africa, because of years of persistent drought, was felt to be worthy of the focus of US development attention, but who knew anything about the rural poor in the Francophone areas of the Sahel that had been the principal targets of drought and famine? Other than a few Christian missionaries, only anthropologists had worked in these areas, and only three American anthropologists had worked in rural francophone Africa: Elliot Skinner, Peter Hammond, and me. I accepted a position as social science advisor with USAID's West and Central Africa regional office, based in Abidjan. My specific task was to refine and institutionalize "social soundness analysis" in the project design cycle.
"Development anthropology," which became a self-consciously applied term in the mid-1970s in part because of my work with USAID, is not a separate field or sub-discipline of anthropology. It is social anthropology focused on planned and often imposed social and cultural change. Its theoretical orientations are as broad as those for social anthropology, encompassing bioecology, critical theory, and political economy.
Having a vast geographic arena to work in (from Mauritania in the north to Chad in the east and Zaire in the south), precluded in-depth field research on my own part, but that was compensated for by the opportunity to visit literally dozens of pastoral and agricultural peoples throughout the area. Since I had worked intensively in the Sahel in the immediate pre-drought period and was now observing behaviors in the immediate post-drought period, I was especially interested in understanding the adaptations that had occurred. The notion of "adaptive strategies" was explored in a number of papers I wrote during that period, including "Sahelian Pastoral Adaptive Strategies Before and After Drought," and "Market Articulation of Pastoral Producers: The Question of Offtake." In these and other papers I challenged the still-dominant (Herskovitsian) notion that pastoral practice could not be understood in terms of rational economic and ecological adaptations. A claimed self-destructiveness in pastoral practice was most influentially and perniciously advocated by the bioethicist Garrett Hardin in his famous paper in Science on "The Tragedy of the Commons" Because so much damage was done to pastoral peoples by actions that were Hardin-informed, I devoted a good deal of my scholarship to its falsification, demonstrating that, to the contrary, herders were in general good stewards of their lands, and the "overgrazing" was at least as characteristic of modern ranching, which is in private hands. I also demonstrated that the coupling of "fragility" with "dryland ecosystems" was not supported by data, which affirmed, rather, the resilience of these systems.
The other principal contribution of my work on pastoral production systems was to demonstrate the economic importance of pastoral women as herd and natural resource managers. The key publications here are "The Sociology of Pastoralism and African Livestock Development" (1979), "Pastoral Women and Change in Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia" coauthored with Forouz Jowkar; "Research Priorities in Pastoral Studies: An Agenda for the 1980s," "On Listening to Herders: An Essay in Pastoral Demystification," "Idiology, Policy and Praxis in Pastoral Livestock Development" and "African Pastoralism and Poverty: Some Implications for Drought and Famine" coauthored with Peter D. Little. My ideas on pastoralism may not yet be "mainstream," but they are hardly now at the margins. It may be one of the few areas where anthropology has had a substantial positive impact on the well-being of small producers in the development world, less by recommending specific courses of action than by dissuading actions that threaten the viability of pastoral production systems on drylands.
Ted Scudder, David Brokensha, and I founded the Institute for Development Anthropology (IDA) in 1976, an independent research and consulting firm. The Institute advocated for justice for the world's poorest populations, educated donors on the importance of including anthropologists on research teams, helped those donors and anthropologists to connect, gave anthropologists real decision-making capacity unhindered by the interests of larger concerns, and created a situation where anthropologists could work with low overhead because the support staff was small, well trained and based in upstate New York. IDA housed a highly specialized library of pertinent documents (now housed at the State University of New York at Binghamton). It published a working paper series, a monograph series, and a scholarly journal.
In the early 80s, in partnership with Clark University, IDA was awarded the Cooperative Agreement on Settlement and Resource Systems Analysis, a grant from AID under which long-term anthropological research was carried out in Tunisia and in the Senegal River Basin.
The Senegal River Basin Monitoring Activity was a wonderful research instrument. Our motivation in this as in most of our work was to facilitate through rigorous anthropological inquiry and advocacy the transformation of the rural poor majority from victims to beneficiaries of development. The issues here were more complex than those involved with pastoralism, because in river-basin development each of the competing constituencies has legitimate arguments supporting hydropower generation, expanded irrigation, and maintenance of the pre-dam flood regime for recession cultivation, fisheries, herding, aquifer regeneration, afforestation, and biodiversity.
Our long-term field research in the middle Senegal valley demonstrated the economic and environmental, as well as the sociocultural benefits of the pre-dam flow for nearly a million small producers. Most dam opponents base their case on grounds such as these, but high dams continue to be built. Most development countries do suffer from inadequate and high-cost energy sources that depend on fossil fuel steam plants for their generation. Our research team therefore included not only anthropologists, but also agronomists, hydrologists, and environmental engineers who reported to the anthropologists. Our joint task was to propose a solution whereby hydropower, irrigation, and traditional cultivation could all be supported. We determined that enough water could be stored in the reservoir upstream from the Manantali Dam, when added to the peak flows from the two undammed tributaries of the mainstream, to generate an "artifical flood" while still retaining impounded water sufficient to produce seventy-six megawatts of continuous power and allow for an increase in irrigation. The Senegal River Basin Monitoring Activity Synthesis Report, co-authored with Muneera Salem-Murdock, was also published in French and in Pulaar.
In a later year I found myself in Vietnam, teaching students and faculty of Can Tho University how to do household surveys in the Mekong delta, so that when the flow changes because of dams, there will be a baseline of data with which to compare.
B.A. Oberlin College, 1955, PhD Columbia University, 1959. Taught at the State University of NY at Binghamton 1961-2004.
Kimball Award, 2000
Books and Monographs:
The Society for Applied Anthropology is pleased to announce that Paul L. Doughty has been selected as the recipient of the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for 2005. Dr. Doughty is Distinguished Service Professor, Emeritus, of the Department of Anthropology and Latin American Studies of the University of Florida. He will receive the Award on April 8, 2005, at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Society in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
The Malinowski Award, initiated by the SfAA in 1973, is a career achievement distinction presented each year to an outstanding social scientist. The award recognizes and honors a career dedicated to the goal of solving human problems through the application of concepts and tools from the social sciences. Prior awardees include Gunnar Myrdal, Margaret Clark, Everett C. Hughes, Sol Tax, Elizabeth Colson, Sir Raymond Firth, and recently, Carlos Velez-Ibañez, Pertti Pelto, and the late John Bennett.
Following two and a half years of community development work in México and El Salvador between 1953 and 1955 with the American Friends Service Committee, Paul Doughty entered graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania and later moved to Cornell, where he worked with the Cornell-Perú Project as a Research Associate in 1960-2. He completed his Ph.D. in 1963 at Cornell University. From 1962-4 he was Field Director of the Cornell Perú Project and Coordinator for a two year study of Peace Corps impact in Perú. He held appointments at Indiana University from 1964 to 1971, where he directed the Latin American Studies Program, moving to the University of Florida in 1971 as Chair of Anthropology. He retired in 1995. Throughout his academic career, he taught a wide range of courses but focused on applied and policy issues and directed over 100 graduate students through Ph.D. and M.A. programs. He was Visiting Professor in 1996 at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia in Bogotá and delivered lectures at many U.S. and foreign universities. As Professor Emeritus, he has continued to conduct research, revisiting former project areas, to serve as consultant on development issues, to be engaged in local civic and public affairs, and to be active in professional organizations.
Professor Doughty has had many distinguished achievements in his long career. His applied research has focused on community development and policy; urbanization and migration; human rights; social impact assessment of development projects; disaster research and recovery; international policy, and peace studies. He has been active in many professional organizations, serving on the organizing and founding committees of the Latin American Studies Association and elected as its President in 1974. He served on the Committee on Professional Ethics of the SfAA from 1978-79; on the Executive Board of the AAA and was President of the Society for Latin American Anthropology from 1990-92. From 1988-1999 he was Editor of Human Peace, the Journal/Newsletter of the IUAES Commission on the Study of Peace. From 1998-2000 he was President of the Association of Senior Anthropologists of the AAA and continues as its contributing editor to Anthropology News.
Professor Doughty's published works include Huaylas: An Andean District in Search of Progress (1968, with Mary F. Doughty, and also published in Spanish in 1970); Perú: A Cultural History (with H. Dobyns, 1976); and Pararín: A Break with the Past (with L. Negron, 1964). Among his many applied publications are "Desires for Peace vs. the Cultures of Violence in Colombia", in Social Justice: Anthropology, Peace and Human Rights (2000, Vol. 1:1-4); "Plan and Pattern in Peruvian Disaster Recovery: 1970-1997" in The Angry Earth: The Anthropology of Disasters (A. Oliver-Smith & S. Hoffman, eds., 1999); Perú: The Social and Historical Context for Indigenous Development Policy, Report and Recommendations to the World Bank (1998); "The Food Game in Latin America," in Anthropology and Food Policy in Latin America and Africa (D. MacMillan, ed.,1990); "Human Rights in Latin America: Anthropology at the Crossroads," in Anthropology and Human Rights (T. Downing & G. Kushner, eds., Cultural Survival Report No. 24. Society for Applied Anthropology and Cultural Survival, Inc., 1988); "Vicos: Success, Rejection and Rediscovery of a Classic Program," in Applied Anthropology in America (E. Eddy & W. Partridge, eds., 1987); Perú: An Evaluation of P.L. 480 Title II Assistance (with E. Burleigh and M. Painter, USAID, 1984); The Effects of Chronic Long-Term Cannabis Use: Final Report of a Transdisciplinary Research Project in San Jose, Costa Rica 1973-75, (co-authored and edited with W. Carter and W. Coggins, NIDA, 1976); Peasants, Power and Applied Social Change: Vicos as a Model (with H. Dobyns and H. Lasswell, 1971); and, Measurement of Peace Corps Program Impact in the Peruvian Andes: Final Report (with H. Dobyns and A. Holmberg, 1966). He has also organized several ethnographic collections and exhibits and five visual anthropology exhibits, and has developed a computerized research and teaching collection of 2500 color photographs.
The Society for Applied Anthropology is pleased to announce that John W. Bennett has been selected as the recipient of the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for 2004. Dr. Bennett is Professor Emeritus of the Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis. He will receive the Award on April 2, 2004, at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Society in Dallas, Texas.
The Malinowski Award, initiated by the SfAA in 1973, is a career achievement distinction presented each year to an outstanding social scientist. The award recognizes and honors a career dedicated to the goal of solving human problems through the application of concepts and tools from the social sciences. Prior awardees include Gunnar Myrdal, Margaret Clark, Everett C. Hughes, Sol Tax, Elizabeth Colson, Sir Raymond Firth, and recently, Carlos Vélez-Ibáñez, Pertti Pelto, and Walter Goldschmidt.
Prof. Bennett earned his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1946. He held appointments at The Ohio State University from 1946 to 1959 and at Washington University from 1959 to 1985, where he also held adjunct appointments in the East Asian Studies Center and the Department of Engineering and Policy. He is currently Distinguished Anthropologist in Residence at Washington University. He has authored 17 books and over 200 papers. Among his well-known books are Classic Anthropology: Critical Essays 1994-1996 (1998), Human Ecology as Human Behavior: Essays in Environmental and Developmental Anthropology (1996), The Ecological Transition: Cultural Anthropology and Human Adaptation (1976), and Northern Plainsmen: Adaptive Strategy and Agrarian Life (1969 and 1976).
Throughout his distinguished career, Dr. Bennett has also contributed significantly to applied and ecological/agricultural anthropology in his research with U.S. and Canadian mid-western and northern Plains farmers, on the ecology of livestock production in East Africa, and on water resource management in six countries. Among his important applied studies of agrarian communities is Of Time and the Enterprise: North American Family Farm Management in a Context of Resource Marginality (1982). He had long involvement with nutritional anthropology and studies of postwar Japan, publishing numerous articles and two major applied works, Paternalism in the Japanese Economy (1963) and In Search of Identity: the Japanese Overseas Scholar in America and Japan (1958). His recent on-line publication, Doing Photography and Social Research in the Allied Occupation Japan, 1948-1951: A Personal and Professional Memoir, is located at http://www.lib.ohio-state.edu/rarweb/japan/
Dr. Bennett has served as consultant to the Man and the Biosphere Program of UNESCO, to the committee of the AAAS dealing with arid lands and desertification, to the Southeast Asian Conference on Human Ecology of the University of Indonesia, and on Japanese Industrialization for the SSRC. He was also an Associate of the Land Tenure Center at the University of Wisconsin and the Office of Arid Land Studies at the University of Arizona. He has been President of the Society for Applied Anthropology and of the American Ethnological Society and Chair of the Anthropology Section of the AAAS. These distinguished achievements have clearly earned Prof. Bennett his place among the prior recipients of this important award.
The Society for Applied Anthropology is pleased to announce that Prof. Carlos Vélez-Ibáñez has been selected as the recipient of the Bronislaw Malinowski Award for 2003. Prof. Vélez-Ibáñez currently holds the Presidential Chair in Anthropology at the University of California, Riverside, where he also directs the Ernesto Galarza Applied Research Center.
The Malinowski Award is a career achievement distinction which is presented each year by the Society to an outstanding social scientist. The Award recognizes and honors a career dedicated to the goal of solving human problems through the application of concepts and tools from the social sciences.
The Malinowski Award was initiated by the Society in 1973. Prior awardees include Gunnar Myrdal, Margaret Clark, Everett C. Hughes, Sol Tax, Elizabeth Colson, and Sir Raymond Firth.
Prof. Vélez-Ibáñez will receive the Award on March 21, 2003, at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Society in Portland, Oregon. At that time, he will deliver the Malinowski Address, which is the featured presentation of the annual meeting.
Prof. Vélez-Ibáñez earned his Ph.D. from the University of California, San Diego. Throughout his distinguished career, he has contributed significantly to applied anthropology and particularly, to an understanding of the contemporary lives of Mexican and Mexican-American populations. Through widely respected books and many articles, he has creatively explored themes and problems central to the life of these populations- the education of children, the emergence of socially viable communities, the role of women in politics, the development of cultural identity, the political economy of border life, and the social basis of economic survival in scarce circumstances to name a few. These distinguished achievements clearly earned Prof. Vélez-Ibáñez his place among the prior recipients of this important Award.
When Bert arrived at UConn in 1969, his book on methods (Anthropological Research: the Structure of Inquiry) was almost completed and he had established a reputation as a serious, ‘hands-on’ tutor of rigorous research in field settings. Moreover, his research and publications on socio-economic change in Finnish Lapland provided the necessary credentials as an accomplished researcher in remote settings. And, he was beginning to get involved in the “applied” part of the discipline.
To start and end at UConn, however, ignores some very interesting and important parts of his odyssey.
The story begins, as Bert described it, with a childhood fixed in a bilingual and bicultural family setting (Finnish-American), “strengthened by my parents’ frequent communications with persons in their homeland”. This cosmopolitan background, however, was not necessarily reinforced in undergraduate school. In fact, “Washington State College…was known…as the ‘cow college’ at the time.” And despite his selection to Phi Beta Kappa, “I never saw a sign of a counselor, didn’t know what graduate school was all about”, and had little idea of where graduates in economics go for employment.
His first job after graduation reflected this occupational naïveté – “for about a year after graduating, I drove a bread truck in Portland, Oregon “.
The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 led to a draft notice from the U.S. Army and an abrupt occupational change. Among other things, military service forced him to “think seriously about getting more education”, and quite fortuitously, he encountered and digested Clyde Kluckhohn’s, Mirror for Man. “I was astonished to learn about the field of anthropology and felt that was the kind of study I should have been doing as an undergraduate.”
His discharge from the military led to graduate school at Berkeley and the opening of new and important vistas. At the time, he recalled, graduate students understood that a paradigm shift was underway - structural functionalism, applied, and culture/personality were crowding out “good old-fashioned ethnographic field work.” By the mid-1950’s, he had decided to do his doctoral research on Finnish Lapland “because I was intent on developing the Finnish side of my dual cultural identify.
His first academic appointment at Cornell provided the opportunity to refine his interest in research methods and to further his inclination toward applied anthropology. Colleagues there were using statistical analysis to assess behavior and this encouraged his grasp of numerical analysis and hypothesis testing.
Bert was recruited to the University of Minnesota in 1963 and this provided an ideal setting for refining his interest in research methods. Field training opportunities quickly emerged in the State and in Mexico, and this encouraged his exploration of research methods.
An unexpected opportunity surfaced in 1967, when Bert was invited to study the impact of technological change in Finnish Lapland. The introduction of snowmobiles was changing in significant ways the system of reindeer herding. The results of the study (The Snowmobile Revolution) were published in 1972, and reaffirmed his interest in the interplay between technology and social change.
In 1969, he was recruited to a newly-formed Department at the University of Connecticut. Anthropological Researchwas published the following year, and he soon began an association with the University Medical School (Community Medicine). Much of the remainder of the UConn history is well known and shared.
Bert retired from UConn in 1992 and began a new career providing technical assistance for field research teams working in India. Three years later, he agreed to relocate there for a “few years”; he has lived there ever since. On location, he continues to provide technical assistance for field research projects throughout South Asia.
Walter Goldschmidt graduated cum laude from the University of Texas, Austin in 1933 with a BA in Anthropology, followed by his MA in 1935. He received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1942. He has been a Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles since 1946.
Dr. Goldschmidt served as Chair of the 30-member Department of Anthropology at UCLA from 1964-69 and helped to create several organizations, including the African Studies Center at UCLA, the African Studies Association, the Society for Senior Anthropologists, the Society for Psychological Anthropology, and the Anthropological Film Research Institute.
During Dr. Goldschmidt’s distinguished career, he has contributed to over 200 titles, including some 16 books and monographs written or co-authored, another 11 edited or co-edited, about 75 essays in scholarly journals or edited books, forewords to 16 books, and many book reviews and miscellaneous items such as letters to editor, editorials and the like. From 1951-1953 Dr. Goldschmidt was Director of “Ways of Mankind” Radio Project, under the aegis of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters, which produced 26 half-hour radio dramatizations of anthropological concepts and perceptions.
Dr. Goldschmidt’s study of California agriculture has led to the “Goldschmidt Hypothesis” which is still influencing policy research on American agriculture. His study of native land use and rights in Alaska has been influential in preserving access to land among the Tlingit people and is influencing the decisions relating to the Athapascan interior. His publication on the early use of applied anthropology in America remains a major source for that field.
Dr. Goldschmidt has served as President of the American Anthropological Association (1976), American Ethnological Society (1971), Southwestern Anthropological Association (1951), Eta Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, (1971), and Executive Board founding member, African Studies Association (1957-60).
María E. Bozzoli is a Costa Rican anthropologist known for her defense of the rights of ethnic minorities, her efforts for the recognition, respect and tolerance of cultural diversity, and her advocacy for conservation and sustainable use of the natural environment. As a pioneer in establishing the field of Anthropology in her country, she had to initiate and orient activities in different academic and applied topics of the discipline. There are two salient preocuppations in her work. One has been the Amerindian indigenous population, viewed from their precolumbian roots to their present status as cultural components of the national culture. Another one has been her interest in alternatives for national development rooted in her country’s history, cultural pluralism and biodiversity.
Dr. Bozzoli earned a bachelor’s and a master’s degree in anthropology, majoring in archaeology, at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, in the 1950s. She completed a doctorate in anthropology at the University of Georgia, Athens, in 1975. In 1962 she started teaching at the Universidad de Costa Rica. She has remained there doing academic and applied work. At this institution she was also elected member of the University Council (senate) from 1984 to 1988. She also served as Director of the Council and as Vice President of Social Action for the University of Costa Rica from 1976 to 1981. In this position she had an opportunity to apply anthropology through the service projects addressed to the national community. In 2000 she was elected as member of the University Council of the Universidad Estatal a Distancia to represent the national community for the next five years. She has lectured in the United States. One of her appointments was as a Fulbright Scholar at Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge and another one was Hall Distinguished Visiting Professor of Anthropology at the University of Kansas. In her applied work she has cooperated with governmental institutions in her country, for instance, the national planning office (development of border regions), the social welfare institute (issues of poverty), the advisory municipal institute (local development), the Costa Rican electricity institute (resettlement of people in dam construction), and the Ministry of Natural Resources (sustainable development).
Her contributions have been acknowledged in diverse ways, among them, at the University of Costa Rica she was honored as professor emerita in 1992. The Ethnology Laboratory at the University of Costa Rica bears her name since the 1980s. The Museum of Indigenous Cultures, inaugurated in 2003, located in Sarapiquí, Costa Rica, also bears her name. She is a recipient of her country's highest award to distinguished citizens for cultural endeavors, the Premio Magon.
She has published numerous articles and some books dealing with university and Costa Rican history; with the archaeology, social organization, symbolism and problems of marginality of indigenous cultures; applied anthropology in Central America, sustainable development, artisanal fishermen, farmers, culture theory, education, and philanthropy.
Over the last 40 years Dr. Thayer Scudder has been at the forefront of applied anthropology. His work, beginning with the ecology of the Gwembe Tonga in the 1960's, followed by his longitudinal contributions to the understanding of cultural change and resettlement, and his more recent work teasing out the impact of structural readjustment on rural peoples worldwide, constitutes a rare and impressive achievement. Dr. Scudder has productively combined an extensive consulting career in environmental issues, resettlement impacts and regional development with significant academic contributions. His work encompasses the fields of river basin development, forced relocation, and refugee reintegration in diverse regions around the world including Africa, India, Nepal, Jordan, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines, Sri Lanka and the United States.
The scientific contributions Dr. Scudder has made have been no less impressive. His resettlement model, developed with Elizabeth Colson in 1982, is a benchmark and a standard against which other approaches are measured. This work established the field of resettlement studies as an important subfield and application of anthropology.
Dr. Scudder graduated cum laude in General Studies from Harvard College with a concentration in Anthropology and Biology in 1952. In 1953-54 he focused on African Studies and Comparative Religion at Yale University and later received his Ph.D., in Anthropology, from Harvard University in 1960. Directly after leaving Harvard, Dr. Scudder spent a year at the London School of Economics doing a postdoctorate in African Studies, Anthropology and Ecology. After holding positions with The Rhodes-Livingston Institute for Social Research in Northen Rhodesia 1956-57 and again in 1962-63 and a post at the American University in Cairo in 1961-62, Dr. Scudder joined the faculty at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif. Here he has trained and influenced numerous students in anthropology, human ecology and regional planning.
Dr. Thayer Scudder's career stands as an example of how both theory and practice in anthropology is productive . In his academic and practical work, Dr. Scudder has illustrated the consequences of the resettlement of people in dam construction. And more importantly he has influenced national governments in making positive changes in policy for impacted people around the world. His more recent work showing the relationship of declining prices in international commodities to levels of violence, in communities undergoing economic downturns is a major achievement. Perhaps, a highlight of his work has been the development, along with Michael Horowitz and David Brokenshaw, of the Institute for Development Anthropology now known for developmental research in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Indeed Dr. Scudder, has through his lifetime continued to contribute to the understanding of dislocated peoples and has helped to protect local populations against development abuses. His recent work on the Okivambo ecological protection project is exemplary in this regard.
His contributions have not gone unnoticed. The American Anthropological Association has twice recognized his contributions. He was the first recipient of the Solon T. Kimball Award for Public and Applied Anthropology in 1984, and again in 1991 he was the recipient of the Edward J. Lehman Award for "forwarding the interests of anthropology by demonstrating the discipline's relevance for government, business and industry". He has numerous publications among which are his books, The Gwembe Tonga, 1962, Secondary Education and the Formation of an Elite, 1979, The Impacts of Forced Relocation On Navajos, 1982, For Prayer and Profit: the Changing Role of Beer in Gwembe District, 1988 African Experience with River Basin Development 1993, and numerous journal articles, book chapters and reports to international, national and regional entities.
In recent years, anthropologists have sought to apply cost-effective solutions, tested overseas, to an expanding range of parallel problems appearing among cultural minorities within the United States. As federal services contract and funding sources diminish, interest in the prospects for "bringing applied anthropology back home" has sharply increased.
Our presentation describes our experiences, based on the principles of community oriented primary care (COPC), in projects providing health services and squatter resettlement in the southern Philippines. We then illustrate the application of these examples of participatory development to similar policy issues arising among Native Americans and Hispanics in the U.S. Southwest.
|1997||Ward Goodenough||1984||Alexander Leighton|
|1996||Bea Medicine||1983||Omer Stewart|
|1995||Michael M. Cernea||1982||George Foster|
|1994||Claudio Esteva Fabregat||1981||Raymond Firth|
|1993||Ronald Frankenberg||1980||Fei Xiaotung|
|1992||Margaret Clark||1979||Laura Thompson|
|1991||Conrad Arensberg||1978||Juan Comas|
|1990||St. Claire Drake||1977||Sol Tax|
|1989||Lauriston Sharp||1976||Edward H. Spicer|
|1988||Fred Richardson||1975||Gunnar Myrdal|
|1987||Margaret Lantis||1974||Everett C. Hughes|
|1986||Philleo Nash||1973||Gonzalo Aguirre Beltran|
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