Paper Abstracts


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ILAHIANE, Hsain (MS State U) Toiling in the State of Al-hogra: Moroccan Men in Search of Respect and Dignity in the Informal Sector. In Morocco, many men have chosen to migrate to Europe, while others have stayed behind to fulfill their breadwinner role in the informal sector. These informal laborers toil within a compromised ethical and moral context known as al-hogra. The notion of al-hogra means “contempt, humiliation, and degradation.” In this paper, I provide an ethnographic account of men-as-providers laboring amid the precarity of informality in the pursuit of a decent way of life. More significantly, I claim that the notion of al-hogra provides a useful theoretical framework to bring society’s unresolved political issues, persistent poverty, and unemployment knot into better focus. (S-43) 

INGRAM, Scott and PATRICK, Shelby (Colorado Coll) Human Securities and Migration in the 13th through 15th Century US Southwest and Mexican Northwest. Tens of thousands of people were on the move in the US Southwest and Mexican Northwest during the 13th through 15th centuries. By the end of the 15th century, population levels declined by about 80% through population loss and migration. As archaeologists, our research questions are stimulated by contemporary concerns and we ask the past for insights and context. We apply the UN Development Programme’s human securities approach to the first systematic, comparative study of conditions throughout the region prior to depopulation. The approach and results advance archaeological methods and understanding of the depopulation and provide a deep time perspective on migration in the region. (F-153)

INKS, Michaela (USF) A Critical Look at the Consent Decree of 1990. This paper addresses the issue of the establishment of the Consent Decree of 1990 that was created from the court case of LULAC vs The Florida Board of Education. The goals of the consent decree were to give linguistically diverse students their full rights to education in the public-school system. The Consent Decree is used today to identify students who “lack” proficiency in English language and offer accommodations that will lead to their success and eventual graduation. In the context of increasingly diverse student body and budget cuts due to administrative prioritization does the Consent Decree does meet its intended purpose? (W-94) 

IRONS, Rebecca (U Coll London) Available but Invisible: Venezuelan Migrant Access to Sexual & Reproductive Health Services in Lima, Peru. Venezuelan migrant women arriving in Peru are in need of medical attention, including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Due to resource shortage in Venezuela, where a pack of condoms costs over a months’ wages, there is a great need for contraceptives amongst those wishing to avoid unwanted-pregnancy; particularly given the precarious economic, political, and social situation of the majority of migrants. In Peru, these services are legally meant to be offered free-of-charge to Venezuelans, yet this is not always the reality. This paper analyses migrant access to SRH services in Lima, giving recommendations on improvements to access and use. (TH-158) 

IRONS, Rebecca (U Coll London) Taking Data Back to the Field: Discussing a Decolonial Anthropology Post-Fieldwork in the Peruvian Andes. Anthropologists and the discipline have historically been accused of being a ‘handmaiden of colonialism’ (Asad,1973); arriving to far-flung locales and collecting data about a population without giving back. Increasingly, this has been addressed through a decolonial-anthropology. Following from a twelve-month ethnographic-project within state-health-institutions in the rural-Peruvian-Andes, this paper will discuss an initial implementation of this decolonial-approach through a focus on the post-fieldwork, collaborative efforts made between the anthropologist and the Ministry-of-Health-Peru. This practice not only ‘shared’ data with those in the field, but produced fruitful recommendations for policy and underscored additional areas for improvement that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. (W-08)

OLESON, Kirsten and VAUGHAN, Mehana (UH Mānoa) Accounting for Layered Problem Definitions in Shark and Fisheries Management. The complexity of fisheries management problems is often negotiated through simplified, technical problem definitions. This can produce solutions that either fail to address, or exacerbate sociopolitical conflicts. In the Mariana Archipelago and West Hawaii, we conduct semi-structured interviews to explore the “shark problem” as it is perceived by fishers, researchers, and managers. We find that problem definitions are layered according to material factors like shark behavior and abundance, and sociopolitical factors like stakeholder relationships and equity. We also find that problem definitions vary and contradict between regions and stakeholders, and reflect on their implications for shark management strategies. (F-37)

IZQUIERDO BAYÀ, Marta (Independent) Exploring Two Referent Models of Inclusion and Its Social Repercussions in Catalonia. In a social context marked by increasing diversity, new ways of inclusion and understanding of difference must be explored. Not only higher education needs to be more open and inclusive, but also it is imperative to rethink the educational model as a whole. What is the point of an integrative higher education system, if then some people with specific needs cannot fulfill themselves professionally? Through an in-depth ethnography set in Catalonia (Spain), two referent models of integration will be inquired in order to find out their pros, cons and how diversity is managed within society. (TH-14) 

JACKSON, Deborah (Earlham Coll) Sarnia’s Toxic Blob: Tracing Temporalities and Transmutations of Oil in 20th Century Canada. In September of 1985, a dark tarry mass was discovered in the St. Clair River alongside Sarnia, Ontario, and dubbed the “Blob” by media. I trace the Blob’s oil back to its past extraction in Alberta’s oilsands, through processing plants in Sarnia, and into the river as waste. I then follow that transmuted oily waste downstream to Walpole Island First Nation where it invaded bodies, contributing to disease processes over time, creating an uncertain future for residents there. While focused on a particular case, the analysis illuminates general aspects of the temporalities and transmutations of oil in 20th century Canada. (TH-06)

JACOB, Cara and RADONIC, Lucero (MSU) Broken Pipes and Broken Trust: Infrastructural Failure and Contested Expertise in Flint, MI. The water crisis in Flint, MI captured the attention of the world in 2014. According to the state, the crisis is over, but the narrative of Flint’s citizens tells a different story. I draw on photovoice and interview data to understand how citizen’s narratives about the infrastructural failure in Flint contest state expertise and begin to construct their own. Analyzing women’s testimonies, this study speaks to how citizenship is contested and reformulated, interrogating what access to basic water infrastructure means in a context of resource insecurity and denial of democracy, and outlines the impact of differential narratives on trust between Flint’s citizens and the state. (F-62)​​​​​​​ 

JACOB, Steve (YCP), COLBURN, Lisa and JEPSON, Michael (NOAA Fisheries) Enhancing the Utility of Fishery Social Indicators: Synthesizing Multiple Indices into a Single Indicator. NOAA Fisheries’ Community Social Vulnerability Indicators (CSVIs) covering over 4,600 coastal communities are comprised of 14 indices representing different facets of social well-being and fishing dependence. They are used in fisheries social impact assessments to identify places which may experience adverse effects from regulatory change. Synthesizing conceptually diverse indices into a meaningful single composite score can be challenging given the variety of indicators. A single score will facilitate identification of similar communities in terms of resiliency and vulnerabilities and greatly enhance the utility of the CSVIs. This research will compare new and emerging methodologies to produce a valid synthesis score. (W-97)

JALIL-GUTIERREZ, Sylvia (CCSU) Marginality, Trauma and Belonging? What is the impact of marginalization and trauma on one’s sense of belonging? What does citizenship mean in this context? This presentation is an exploratory foray into how marginalization and trauma are intertwined and complicate one’s place in the world. This paper will comprise a review of the literature regarding psychological and physical trauma among marginalized groups in complex societies, particularly in the United States. My aim, once I have secured IRB approval, is to then conduct research using a life history methodology to illuminate how people “fit-in” in a society which often dismisses their existence, rendering them invisible. (TH-04)

JEAN-BAPTISTE, Stephanie (LUC) Apre Bondye se leta: Exploring the Relationship between NGO Presence in Haiti and the Perceived Role of the Haitian State. Haiti has experienced a series of environmental and political events that have led to the influx of NGO representatives in Haiti. In the summer of 2019, we interviewed 100 people living in various subsections in the locality of Port Salut to investigate the socio-cultural effect of NGO presence. Participants shared their understanding of the involvement of the local governments as well as that of NGOs. This paper discusses the responses as they varied by age and gender, and engages in a discussion on who Haitians believe should be held accountable for the wellbeing of their community. (F-121)​​​​​​​ 

JEFFERSON, Peter (Burris Lab Sch) Engaging Children in Environmental Health Community Organizing. In 2019, the postindustrial small city of Muncie, Indiana (AKA Middletown) accepted a proposal to build a steel dust recycling facility. Approved by the City Council, the recycling process would result in lead, mercury, and other heavy metal emissions that are particularly toxic to children. This paper discusses how children were engaged in the protest efforts, primarily as sideline viewers and banner holders. As a “child,” I assert recommendations for more meaningful engagement of children to maximize our/their impact on environmental health issues. (W-66)​​​​​​​ 

JENSEN, Jamie (Humboldt State U) Academic as Accomplice: Strategies for Defending the Cultural Interests of Indigenous Students in Higher Education. While the story of “education and Indians” in, what is now known as the United States of America is an unjust one, there are things that we as educators can do to leverage our positions in the academy. This study uses a critical ethnographic approach to examine the relationship between Academic and Student. The researcher examines the role of higher education in the reproduction of colonization and genocide to better understand the experiences of Indigenous students and gain insight into the ways that educators can adopt the role of accomplice to Indigenous students in defending their cultural interests. (W-14)

JERNIGAN, Kasey (UVA) and LEATHERMAN, Thomas (UMass) Embodied Heritage Framework: Meaning-making Matters. This paper presents the Embodied Heritage framework developed from a mixed-methods, community-based obesity project with Oklahoma tribal citizens. An Embodied Heritage framework understands health as contingent on one’s socio-cultural, political-economic, and historical position as well as the structures of meaning that make sense of this personal and embodied experience. Using a case-study among obese Choctaws, we illustrate how the Embodied Heritage framework allows for an examination of how (and which) references of inequality, discrimination, and poverty are remembered, evoked, how they “get under the skin” and dialectically shape public narratives, lived experiences, and understandings of Indigenous health and connectedness. (S-01)​​​​​​​ 

JERRY, Anthony (UCR) The “Living Archive” as Community Engagement. While the “living archive” has been discussed as a valuable digital technology for contemporary history making, the concept of the archive itself continues to intuitively reference the past. Building on the work of Horacio Roque-Ramirez, this paper theorizes the “living archive” as a present space within (mind, body, community), as well as a methodology for dealing with the ways that particular social bodies are unable to outlive the past. The paper presents one example of developing a living archive as a method of community engagement with the shared social inheritances that continue to allow the past to be experienced as the present. (W-15)​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ 

JINKA RAMAMURTHY, Malavika (MS State U) “Development” Definitions of Internally Displaced People and the Government: A Case Study of the Chenchu Tribe in the Nallamala Forest of Southern India. The Indian government’s twin objectives of protecting the tiger population in the Nallamala forest and providing “development” to the indigenous Chenchu people have resulted in an on-going process of displacement of the Chenchu people from the forest to the nearby towns and cities. The research is a comparative study of the definitions of “development” by the internally displaced Chenchu people and the Indian government in the context of tiger conservation and socio-economic development. The paper discusses the Chenchu people’s development expectations, the government’s provisions of development and promises, and the on-the-ground realities of conservation and development policies. (F-95)​​​​​​​ 

​​​​​​​JOHNSON, Jeffrey and SCHON, Justin (UFL) Classifying Refugee Flows: Towards a Macro Level Theory of Refugee Flow Networks. As a growing body of research is attempting to model international migration and refugee flows, a persistent challenge has emerged in how to account for substantial context-dependent nuance in each case. To date, migration research has tended to respond to such nuances through individual or a small number of cases. Although such research may be empirically rich, it comes at the expense of the identification of broader theoretical principles. Using annual refugee flow data from 2011-2016, we combine network statistical methods with hierarchical clustering analysis to categorize refugee-producing countries based on factors driving these broader patterns. (S-09)​​​​​​​ 

JOHNSON, Maria, DOYLE, JamieMALDONADO, MartaCONWAY, Flaxen, and BOOVY, Bradley (OR State U) Seafood Processing Workers’ Sense of Place in Coos County, Oregon. Seafood processing is an important industry along the Oregon coast, providing employment and local seafood to communities. Through qualitative interviews and participatory mapping with seafood processing employees in Coos County, this research identifies workers’ sense of place. The findings will highlight a plurality of meanings and experiences among workers’ sense of place based primarily on race/ethnicity, gender, and length of time in the region and industry. Understanding sense of place reveals larger social structures and values in a given locale, highlights how individuals or groups experience space and form identity, and informs inclusive decision-making in resource management. (W-127)

JOHNSON, Mei (UDel) Pass or Fail: Examining Undergraduate Students as Prepared, Marginalized, and Resilient. With hazards increasing in frequency, intensity, and variety, research points to individual preparedness as an effective way to mitigate effects of disasters. Considerable research has been conducted on individual preparedness in the general public, but knowledge of undergraduate student preparedness is under researched. Undergraduates are a semi-independent, transient, and seasonal population transitioning into greater independence. They may be potentially vulnerable, but may also be resilient and privileged. Using the Protective Action Decision Model (Lindell & Perry 2004), this research explores factors influencing preparedness of undergraduate students. Ultimately, individual preparedness is becoming more requirement than option for all. (S-11)​​​​​​​ 

JOHNSON, Teresa and HANES, Samuel (U Maine) Conflicts, Communities, and Complexity: A Mixed Method Study of Marine Aquaculture in Maine. Marine aquaculture is expected to enhance community resilience by creating new opportunities for working waterfronts threatened by the loss of traditional marine fisheries. However, the growth of marine aquaculture can lead to conflicts in some places, but not other places. These conflicts are often rooted in values differences and uncertainty, and they can impede the development of aquaculture in a place. Drawing on a social-ecological systems framework and a mixed methods research approach, this paper explores conflicts and acceptance related to marine aquaculture and argues for engaging diverse perspectives and disciplines in aquaculture research and planning. (F-37)​​​​​​​ 

JOLIE, Edward A. and MARJENIN, Anne E. (Mercyhurst U), TOTH, Jay (Seneca Nation of Indians), MALISCHKE, LisaMarie and OWOC, Mary Ann (Mercyhurst U) Tribally Driven Archaeology and Heritage Preservation Initiatives at Custaloga Town (36Me57), Pennsylvania, an 18th Century Seneca-Delaware Village. Collaborative research and preservation initiatives at Custaloga Town arose from requests by the Seneca Nation to address questions about the area’s archaeology and history. Located on French Creek near present day Carlton, Custaloga Town was an important political and economic destination for Indians and Euroamericans, as well as the final resting place of respected Seneca leader Guyasutha. Research results emphasize the importance and necessity of collaboration and consultation with federally recognized tribes to achieve shared goals of promoting tribal research objectives; preserving and protecting archaeological and historic sites; educating diverse publics, and training the next generation of applied anthropologists. (TH-135)​​​​​​​ 

JOLIE, Ruth and HARRISON, Lauren (Mercyhurst U) The Impact of Sexual Consent Education on Gendered Attitudes: A Case Study from a Liberal Arts University. At our liberal arts university, freshman take an orientation course to assist them in transitioning to undergraduate life; a segment of the course revolves around issues of sexual consent. Our ethnographic research sought to understand gender differences in perceptions of consent among students with and without experience in the course to see if and how the course changed their perceptions. In short, those who took the course were more likely to report differences in how women and men perceive consent. An understanding of how students perceive consent, and orientation courses’ role in altering perceptions, can advance those programs., (W-14)​​​​​​​ 

JONES, Barbara K. (Brookdale CC) The Missing Ecotourist: In Search of “New Advocates” for Outdoor Recreation and Nature Tourism. The human face of outdoor recreation, nature tourism, and wilderness in America has typically been a white one. Visitors to parks and participants on ecotours have tended to share the same “white middle-class view” making nature tourism an experience that fits comfortably with their existing worldviews on wild spaces and conservation. This lack of inclusivity has prompted many who don’t share this view to ask: “What happens if I am not white?” How do I fit into the existing outdoor narrative? This paper will consider the critical role these new advocates for outdoor recreation and nature tourism are to the future of our public lands and wild spaces. (W-12)

JONES, Eric (UTH TMC) Push, Pull and Purpose in the Lives of Those Migrating. Robert E. Rhoades sought an understanding of how people were embedded in a migration regime at a macro level and how at the same time at a micro level they generated new culture in their daily lives. Whether considering a one-time permanent migration or a circular come-and-go migration or a step-wise multiple times migration onto a new place, Rhoades carefully thought not only about the reasons to leave and arrive but also the ways in which people’s sense of purpose guided their migration experience. This paper covers the theoretical structure of his approach and of some related applied implications. (W-36)​​​​​​​ 

JONES, Jasmine (Bill & Melinda Gates Fdn) The Intersection of Tradition, Community and Health Systems Strengthening: Select Case Studies from Nigeria. Designing and implementing sustainable and context-appropriate health systems strengthening solutions is challenging in complex environments such as Nigeria, where cultural nuances heavily influence health-seeking behavior and political decision-making that affects resource allocation and access to healthcare. Understanding these nuances provides insight into why health systems seem to fail, and may unearth new and existing opportunities to address these challenges. This paper aims to highlight cases in Nigeria where traditional and community-based practices have been built into health systems strengthening efforts to better respond to patient and family needs while aiming to improve poor maternal and child health indices. (F-38)​​​​​​​ 

JONES, Rose (Perot Museum of Nature & Sci) Ghosting and the Museum Evaluator: The Disappearance of a Discipline. Although anthropologists working in museums as visitor evaluators or audience researchers is relatively new, the qualitative methodologies that anthropologists use are familiar to the museum industry. The theory and fundamental principles of anthropology are, however, typically not aligned with these methodologies or the methodologies have been modified in ways that disconnect them from the discipline. This can have negative outcomes for data collection/analysis and serve to minimize or negate the role anthropologists assume in museums. This paper explores the current state of museum evaluation, particularly as it impacts the job market for applied anthropologists through the Origins exhibit. (F-05)

JORDAN, Lucor (U Denver) Sharing through Sharing: Diffusion of Food Practice within a Social Justice Organization. This paper explores how individual memories and relationships with food and people generate systems of practice around eating, which change over time. Food-centric life histories are analyzed with Actor Network Theory and Phenomenology to map agency and meaning around food. Interviewees were volunteers, shoppers and staff of a free grocery market that is also home to cooking classes and nutrition education. It considers whether participation in this community organization facilitates diffusion of food related values and knowledge between people, initial findings confirm that the organization’s food culture is, for many participants, integrated into their daily practice and shared across generations. (TH-121)​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ 

JORDAN, Michael (TTU) Material Culture and Indigenous Knowledge: Community Engagement and the Southern Plains Beadwork Collection at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Recent research on the Denver Museum of Nature and Science’s Southern Plains beadwork collection has provided opportunities for community outreach and engagement. DMNS has collaborated with beadwork artists from the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma and the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes. In addition, the museum hosted a delegation of over fifty Cheyenne and Arapaho elders. The project has served as a catalyst for cultural revitalization efforts, as indigenous community members have utilized information recovered through the study of DMNS collections to develop programs designed to revitalize endangered culture practices. Ultimately, the project serves as a model of museum-community collaboration. (TH-135)​​​​​​​ 

JORDAN, Timeri (WFU) Perceptions of Blood and Health in Relation to Caste Hierarchy in Kathmandu, Nepal. Hierarchies are systems of stratification that structure our world, collectively and individually, in a network of power, culture, and history. They both maintain the structure and stability and provide meaning to a world in which daily practices are carried out. This study, conducted in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, sought to examine the perceptions of blood and health within the scope of the caste hierarchy. The significant finding of this study, based on 26 interviews of people of ranging castes and backgrounds, was an ongoing cultural change illustrated through the perceived generational difference in beliefs about blood, health, and caste. (W-93)

JOSEPH, Daniel (DePauw U) Dominican-Haitians: Statelessness and Substantive Citizenship. In 2010, the Dominican state upheld a constitutional amendment that revoked birthright citizenship to children of undocumented Haitian parents and forced them out of the country. In 2015, about 2,200 of these people became displaced in Anse-à-Pitres, Haiti, where most took up residence in temporary camps. Drawing on fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork research with these stateless people, I examine how they create substantive citizenship in the absence of their legal citizenship. By substantive citizenship, I refer to the process by which these people claim and assert rights through everyday social, economic, and cultural practices rather than formally through law. (TH-02)​​​​​​​ 

JUAREZ, Ana (TX State U) and GALLLARDO, Susana (SJSU) Deracializing Archives and Rewriting Public History: The Erasing of Mexican American Lives and Deaths in 20th Century Central Texas. Archives, writes Trouillot, are those institutions that organize facts and sources to “condition the possibility of existence of historical statements.” In this paper, we extend Trouillot’s argument to demonstrate that archival research plays a pivotal role in creating and maintaining the possibility of cultural citizenship. Our research in Central Texas - oral histories, cemetery records, grave markers and funeral home ledger - uncovers egregious instances of discrimination against Mexican Americans, leading to their erasure from both social spaces and historical archives. We argue that contemporary Mexican American communities cannot fully experience a sense of cultural citizenship without a rewriting of their racialized archives. (TH-135)​​​​​​​ 

JUDD, Daniel (Hawaii Pacific Hlth) The Evolving Culture of Orthopedic Pain Management Should Include Plant-Based Medicines. How health care practitioners manage pain is a sociocultural process based on prevailing professional values and norms. Orthopedic surgeons learn orthopedic “culture,” including “proper” pain management, during their residency training. Until recently, orthopedists have relied on opioid-centric pharmacological approaches to diminish pain. Obligated by the opioid epidemic, providers have been forced to reevaluate appropriate pain management. Notable absence from essentially all new recommendations for pain management is plant-based medications. Although not traditionally used by orthopedic physicians, available scientific evidence and centuries of ethnobotanical use, warrant plant-based medicines for inclusion into a modern pain management armamentarium. (W-41)

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