Paper Abstracts


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D’AMICO, Linda (Winona State U) Ecological Citizenship and Ecuadorian Cloud Forest Conservation in the Era of Extraction. In the Anthropocene, current planetary boundaries—including the Chocó living corridor in NW Ecuador—are at great risk. My paper explores circumstances that created cloud forests’ infinite variety, including geologic and climatic conditions that underlie dynamic synergies among bio-geographic, hydrologic and cultural realities. Beginning in the 1990s, local farmers and villagers began to articulate implicit theories of wellbeing in response to threats of mineral extraction. Through participation in assemblies, workshops and meetings, co-citizens have developed effective strategies and practices for sustainability, while creating institutions and policies with allies. They have worked together to safeguard common resources, while promoting human development. (TH-36) 

DALSTROM, Matthew (Saint Anthony Coll of Nursing) Purchasing Medication in Mexico: Perceptions of Risk, Reward, and Policy Opportunities. The high cost of pharmaceuticals has contributed to an interest among policy makers in crafting legislation that facilitates the purchase of lower cost pharmaceuticals abroad. Residents of the Lower Rio Grande Valley have bought pharmaceuticals in Mexico for decades, however negative stereotypes about Mexico has led some to question the safety of the practice. Instead, policy makers have focused on legislation that encourages the use of Canadian pharmaceuticals, which can be more expensive and less accessible. This paper will discuss the impact of stereotypes on pharmaceutical purchasing patterns and how anthropology can be used to critically interrogate assumptions of risk. (T-95) 

DAUGHTERS, Anton (Truman State U) The Political Ecology of Southern Chile’s Islands of Chiloé. This talk offers a broad overview of human-biota relationships in southern Chile’s Archipelago of Chiloé. How has the ecology of the islands shaped the subsistence livelihoods and traditions of islanders over the centuries? And how has human activity—particularly industrial-scale fishing and aquaculture, emergent in recent decades—impacted the region’s natural environment? Drawing on fieldwork and archival research from 20010-2018, I discuss indigenous subsistence practices, the impact of Spanish settlers in the 1500s, and the significant changes Chiloé’s social landscape and ecology have undergone since the mid twentieth century, including threats to the ocean ecosystem—Islanders’ primary source of livelihoods today—and the archipelago-wide protests of 2016. (W-97)

DAVIES, Sonnie (PIRE) Coaching as an Implementation Strategy for Successful School-Based Interventions Focused on the Health Disparities of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth. This mixed-method analysis examines coach-based technical assistance within the Dynamic Adaptation Process (DAP), an implementation framework encouraging the uptake of evidence-based practices to improve school support for LGBTQ+ students in New Mexico high schools. We examine coaching as key DAP component and the positionality of coaches within a wider implementation support system. We discuss how effective coaching is both facilitative and highly adaptable. Coaching functions as a two-way bridge allowing for a mutually-informing relationship between school-level delivery systems, organizational intermediaries, and researchers. The unique positionality of coaches frees them from constraints of peer-level coaching and authoritative forms of evaluative coaching. (T-121) 

DAVIS-SALAZAR, Karla, CASPER, Breanne, PAJUNEN, Matthew, and REYES, Lucio (USF) Conflict, Cooperation, and Consolidation: A Case Study in the Politics and Practice of Shared Governance. Shared governance is a hallowed tenet of higher education. But what does shared governance mean, and how is it enacted in everyday university life? This paper examines the politics and practice of shared governance amidst major structural changes at a large public university in the southeast region of the US. In 2018, the state legislature mandated that three separately accredited institutions consolidate under a single regional accreditation. Drawing on ethnographic research, this paper explores the contested meanings that consolidation holds for university stakeholders and how these meanings shape, and are shaped by, notions of shared governance. (F-44) 

DAVIS, Kayla (UNT) Have You Ever Experienced Water Shortage? “No.” The Himalayan Health Exchange is an organization that allows students and physicians to travel and provide healthcare to the most remote regions of the Indian Himalayas. We sought to answer how climate change induced water shortage impacts health in these communities. However, those interviewed did not conceptualize water shortage in the way the client anticipated, often denying any water related problems. Therefore, there needs to be more research conducted on the communities’ conceptualization of the changing environment in the Himalayas to determine how best to provide healthcare and limit impacts from an increasing number of tourists. (F-04) 

DE ANDA, Victoria (UTEP) Narratives on Mental Health and the Emotional Experiences of Pregnancy among Immigrant Women in El Paso. This research explores the emotional experiences of pregnant and post-natal first-and second-generation immigrant women living in the U.S. Mexico border region. It draws from 35 in-depth interviews conducted in 2018 and 2019. Women’s narratives revealed a lack of emotional and mental attention during and after their pregnancy for issues such as post-partum depression and anxiety. Women also described what types of care and support they desired. This research will help policy makers and practitioners in understanding the gaps within the healthcare system and how to provide more complete emotional and mental health attention during pregnancy. (TH-98)​​​​​​​ 

DE ASSIS NUNES, Ana Carolina (OR State U) Politics of the Discourse: New Paths to a Citizenship Project through the Concepts of Artificial Intelligence and Humanity. In this paper, I discuss how the concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and humanity can support broader notions of citizenship. AI is becoming a transformative force in today’s society, and so, it’s crucial to reconsider what it means to be a citizen. Should it refer only to a local instance? What about the idea of global citizenship in a techno dependent world? Based on my research on Brazilian mass media, especially magazines, I show that the interaction of humans and technologies points to a new model of citizenship that involves different ways of being and includes cyborgs and disembodied entities. (F-124)

DE MUNCK, Victor (Vilnius U) Do Cultural Models Exist in the Mind Or Only in Publications? The concept of cultural models has had its own J-curve in the academic publishing industry since the 1980s. There are three basic positions that this panel will describe and debate. The first and most recognized position is that Cultural Models are shared mental constructs with content constituted, in the main, by culture; the second position is that content is a fallacious metaphor and cognition is predominantly embodied, extended and contentless; the third position, held by Millikan, is that cultural models, or representations, exist but must map onto “the natural world.” I intend to have panelists. We will present our own positions and debate these issues. (TH-129)​​​​​​​ 

DEAHL, Claire (UNT) and BEYER, Molly (Children’s Hlth System TX) Qualitative Assessment of Physician Engagement in Pediatric Tele-specialty Programs. Tele-specialty consults between providers can give a higher level of care to patients at hospitals in remote or rural settings. Current research focuses on patient satisfaction, however physician engagement in tele-specialty programs is less researched. This paper examines a Tele-NICU and a Tele-ER program at a level IV pediatric hospital using semi-structured interviews to understand the natures of the program’s low volumes. This research explores physician perspective of both the remote site providers and the specialist providers. This paper examines the facilitators and barriers to using the tele-specialty programs. This study will guide future conversations of effective program delivery. (W-09)​​​​​​​ 

DEFILLIPO, Cassie (U Melbourne) Who Puts the Toxic in Toxic Masculinity? Research on masculine gender performances and reimagined sexual decision making among heterosexual men in Northern Thailand has found that gender performances are continuously constructed through everyday interactions, discourses, and institutions. Thus, toxic forms of masculinity are also social constructions. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, this presentation analyses men’s constructions of manhood through sexual decision-making within the backdrop of Northern Thailand. This presentation demonstrates that men negotiate gender identities through homosociality, or male peer-groups, often emphasizing sexuality to perform masculinity within and for homosocial circles. Through an examination of these factors, this research contends that male peer groups are sites where performances of toxic masculinity are maintained and can be challenged. cassie. (W-75)

DEHAAS, Jocelyn (UNM) Can I Pet Your Dog?: Interactions between Visually-Impaired Handlers, Their Dog Guides, and the Public. Much research has been done on the psychological benefits to for visually-impaired users of dog guides. Examinations of the social effects of dog guide use are wanting, however. The public generally perceives people who are blind and their dogs are perceived as less helpless, less disabled, than people who are blind and without a dog. Dog use can have negative social repercussions as well. My research people with blindness who have dogs and their experiences with the general public with whom they interact demonstrates both the benefits and drawbacks of having a dog. (F-72)​​​​​​​ 

DELANY-BARMANN, Gloria and MCILVAINE-NEWSAD, Heather (WIU) Cultivating Change in the Curriculum through International Faculty Development. This presentation highlights the experiences of faculty who participated in an Undergraduate International Studies Foreign Language grant in Puerto Rico and Ecuador in 2016 - 2019. Faculty from general education courses across our university participated in this project over a three-year period. We will discuss faculty experiences working with community-based organizations and enhancing their curriculum based upon their experiences in these countries. Some designed study abroad courses based while others infused their courses with relevant international connections. Through collaboration with colleagues from Puerto Rico and Ecuador, faculty engaged in community and curriculum development to cultivate change in the curriculum. (TH-14)​​​​​​​ 

DELCORE, Henry and RICKMAN, Aimee (CSU Fresno) Shame and Self-Regulation in Young Peoples’ Perceptions of Inappropriate Cellphone Use. In an environment of heightened anxiety around the structural and personal implications of digital technology, how are young responding? We present data from seventeen photo diaries completed by students at a large public university, probing participants’ perceptions of inappropriate cellphone use by themselves and others. We find a pervasive theme of shame among young people as they attempt to navigate and self-regulate mobile technology use in complex social and digital contexts. We offer an analysis of the contextual and social factors (e.g. crosscutting lines of authority) that young people use to judge cellphone use by themselves and others. (TH-127)

DELISLE, Takami (UKY) Differences That Tie Us Together: Towards Solidarity Building for Decolonizing Anthropology Graduate Training. This paper spotlights dilemmas and contestations felt among minoritized anthropologists about the authenticity of ‘marginalized voices’ within U.S. anthropology graduate training. Their accounts, drawn from my ethnographic project on how they experience marginalization and negotiate social and institutional power during graduate education, signal the needs for building solidarity for equitable graduate training. And yet, their quandaries mirror conflicts surrounding U.S.-specific racializing politics where differences are constantly (re)measured and (re)evaluated in the pursuit of the colonial imperialism. Taking the inspiration from theorization of ‘solidarity’ (Alexander 2005; Liu and Shange 2018; Mohanty 2003), I explore solidarity-building strategies for equitable anthropology graduate training. (W-135)​​​​​​​ 

DELUCA, Eileen (FSW) Conflict Heritage: Oral History of Female, Afro-descendant Indigenous Contra War Combatants. This oral history project documents the experiences of Miskitu women in Waspán, Nicaragua during the Contra War (1980-1990). The women describe their experiences as victims of persecution, fleeing to and becoming refugees in Honduras, participation in the conflict as teenage combatants, repatriation into Nicaragua following the war, and the community’s continued conflict with the national government. Their stories have been compiled into a printed book to be used in the women’s efforts to protect their land and allow their lifeways memorialized. The book is intended to “voice” narratives that have been “silenced” in official discourses, national heritage sites and curriculum. (S-02)​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ 

DEMETRIOU, Nicole (VA) Navigating the VA While Living With HIV. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is the only national health system model in the U.S. and provides the largest volume of care to people living with HIV in the U.S. Veterans who access care within the unique culture of this complex system often negotiate multiple identities related to their Veteran status, HIV status, sexual orientation, geographic location and mobility. This paper will explore cultural citizenship and health care navigation by describing the use of Telehealth for the provision of longitudinal HIV care, particularly to rural Veterans, and explore care coordination models for Veterans who move between VA facilities. (TH-34)

DENGAH, Francois and FALCÃO, Ana (USU) Doing Gender in Brazil: A Nested Approach to Cultural Models of Gender Roles. Cultural consonance research has consistently demonstrated that individuals are compelled to approximate cultural norms via social capital and social sanctions. Yet, cultural norms are often multiplex, contested, and arranged along subcultural divisions and individual social networks. From this starting point, this paper explores how ways of preforming Brazilian gender are influenced via dominant cultural norms, religious values, and the expectations of one’s social network. Specifically, I argue that these various social spaces create nested levels for (sub)cultural consonance and dissonance. This nested approach can provide a more nuanced understanding of an individual’s positionality within multidimensional socio-cultural space. (TH-39)

DESMOND, Kathleen (ASU) Arts Criticism in Higher Education. Definitions of Art Criticism, “informed talk about art for the purpose of understanding and appreciating of art” or put another way, “educating the public about art and why it matters” come from philosophical and art critical theories. Art criticism engages several kinds of audiences - teachers, students, scholars, connoisseurs, aficionados, neophytes and naïve audiences - in looking, listening, and thinking. Art criticism affects several publics. Critique is for the purpose of improving artists’ and practitioners’ work. This presentation will consider ideas about teaching and practicing art criticism and critique professionally and in higher education. (S-45)​​​​​​​ 

DEUBEL, Tara (USF) Navigating Gender-based Violence and Family Law at a Moroccan Feminist Organization. Intimate partner violence affects over half of all married women in Morocco. In 2004, Moroccan family law underwent a national reform resulting in several changes, such as increasing women’s ability to obtain a divorce. Based on fieldwork with the Union for Feminist Action in Agadir in 2018-2019, this paper draws on interviews with activists, lawyers, counselors, and women seeking assistance for cases of abuse, neglect, and divorce. Women remain limited in the recourse they can seek due to lack of education and literacy, lack of employment and financial independence, and limitations of current family laws, which activists are attempting to reform through current advocacy. (W-05)​​​​​​​ 

DÍAZ CÓRDOVA, Diego (U Nacional de Lanús, U Buenos Aires) Applied Anthropology in Argentina: A Brief Update Report. With this paper we want to introduce to a broader audience, the state of the art of the applied anthropology in Argentina. This particular area is not well developed in Argentina, nor in Latin America. Most of academics in this country, in particular anthropologists, tend to work in the scientific agency (CONICET or Agencia) or Universities; just a few of them work outside in the third sector or in the private sector, but these sectors seem to be growing right now. Applied anthropology seems to be waking up, we provide here with a brief outline. (F-130)​​​​​​​ 

DIGGS-THOMPSON, Marilynne (U Penn) The Impact of Second-Class Citizenship on the Economic Recovery of the Non-Sovereign Post-Hurricane Caribbean Region: A Case for National Racial and Ethnic PTSD. The massive destruction, property damage and economic disaster resulting from Hurricanes Irma and Maria crippled the local economies and brought hundreds of thousands of residents of the Caribbean to the brink of despair. This climatic disaster was eclipsed only by the lack of response and paltry relief efforts of their “parent” nations as the shadow of neo-colonialism emerged once again. My research, conducted among residents of Puerto Rico, and the Dutch and French territories of Saint Maarten/Saint Martin between 2017 and 2020 chronicles the sense of frustration, anger and emotional trauma among residents as they attempt to rebuild their lives. (F-71)​​​​​​​ 

DILLARD, Madison (U Denver) “We Collect Stories”: The Canadian Museum of Human Rights and Exhibiting Diverse Voices. How do museums exhibit stories about human rights? This presentation describes how the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg, Manitoba represents the stories of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit rights. I show how the idea-based museum centers narratives as the foundation of their exhibits. Through collaboration with individual and community stakeholders, the museum uses oral histories, first-hand accounts, and historical narratives to represent the diverse voices and experiences of Indigenous peoples living in Canada. In the words of one staff member: “We are a collecting museum. We collect stories.” (W-92)​​​​​​​ 

DONAHUE, Katherine (Plymouth State U/White Ash Inst) Gilets Noirs/Gilets Jaunes: Protesting for Rights while Occupying Symbolic Spaces. In November 2018 people wearing yellow vests, gilets jaunes, appeared at French traffic circles and tollbooths to protest fuel prices and their own economic precarity. In 2019 immigrants from West Africa calling themselves gilets noirs, black vests, occupied an international catering company, a terminal of Charles de Gaulle airport, and the Panthéon in Paris, burial place of illustrious French citizens. At stake are rights to citizenship, to equality, and to a voice in determining who has a place in French society. This paper explores consequences of these protests for the French government and for members of these movements. (F-122)

DONLEY, GwendolynCURTIS, Andrew, and FREEDMAN, Darcy (CWRU) Re-Defining the Food Environment Using Spatial Video Geonarratives. Methods are needed that holistically consider the complex interactions between neighborhood environment and health outcomes. This presentation will focus on the use of a novel method, SVG (GPS-enabled mobile interviews), to integrate qualitative and spatial measures to understand perceptions of the food environment. Such perceptions are associated with dietary decision-making, with implications for health and well-being. SVG narratives provide critical understanding of the feedback between physical environment, perceptions, and behavior, and evidence to inform food system interventions based on the realities of local context. These measures enhance our understanding of mechanisms through which environments facilitate or constrain dietary behaviors. (W-01)​​​​​​​ 

DONNER, William (UTRGV) Factors Affecting Preparedness in Coastal Border Communities: A Case Study of Hidalgo County, TX. The following study examines the influence of a series of demographic and socioeconomic factors on disaster preparedness among residents in Hidalgo County, TX. Data were collected as part of the regional Pulse of the Valley Study and AXA Colonia Field Study, together forming a mixed-methods investigation of how local communities prepare for flooding and hurricanes. Results demonstrate that factors impacting preparedness are complex and multidimensional. Although ethnicity played a significant role in the preparedness process, other mediating influences also shaped how and under what conditions preparedness takes place. Policymakers should consider the role of this complexity in crafting disaster policy for local and regional communities. (T-95)​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ 

DORSEY, Achsah (UNCCH) Immune Activation, Body Fat, and Anemia: An Exploration of the Dual Burden in Pre-School-Aged Children Living in a Peri-Urban Community Outside Lima, Peru. Peru has experienced a rapid shift from predominantly undernutrition to a dual burden of under-and over-nutrition. My analysis explores the relationships between immune activation (represented by C-reactive protein), adiposity, and an anemic child’s ability to respond to iron supplementation in 50 pre-school-aged children living in a peri-urban community outside of Lima. Half of all children in the sample responded to treatment, 30% had elevated CRP levels, and 80% had a waist-to-height circumference greater than 0.5. Mediation analyses demonstrate that higher body fat is protective against the negative effects of chronic immune activation on child response to treatment. (W-65)​​​​​​​ 

DOUCET-BATTLE, James (UCSC) A Matter of Substance: Mitochondrial DNA, Race, and Kinship. This paper examines the ways sub-Saharan mitochondrial DNA offers new narratives of race and kinship. Based on both field and archival work, I argue that mitochondrial DNA troubles nationalist claims of racial exclusivity and widens the possibilities for diasporic and transnational forms of kinship reckoning. I seek to both trouble and reconcile longer-standing debates between African American nationalist and African Diasporic scholars through an explication of kinship that genomic science offers in ways not possible either through older anthropological theories of kinship or the policed ethnoracial narratives of nation-states. (F-129)

DOUGLASS, Megan (Wayne State U) Filming on the Frontlines: Using the Lens of Decoloniality in the Production of Digital Storytelling for Political Purposes within Impacted Communities. Political organizations in the US increasingly seek to engage voters by using authentic storytellers in their digital messaging. However, given the historically fraught relationship between political actors and grassroots organizers, gaining access to community members without resorting to transactionality can pose both strategic and ethical dilemmas. Using the story of my work as a communications organizer for a large political organization in Michigan, to produce a short documentary with a citizen of SW Detroit who organizes against the Marathon Gas Refinery, this paper examines using decolonized methodologies in navigating ethics, trust-building, and accountability when working in disenfranchised and marginalized communities. (W-39)​​​​​​​ 

DOWNS, Mike and WEIDLICH, Stev (Wislow Rsch) Processing Labor, Immigration, and Integration in Southwestern Alaska Fishing Communities. Seafood processors in Southwestern Alaska have long relied on management and processing crew labor recruited from outside of the region, including immigrants. However, communities in the region have marked differences in how those workers have or have not been integrated into the larger community. This presentation presents a typology of communities and processing operations in the region and explores the factors that have helped shape distinctly different outcomes in the integration process, demographics, and public institutions among multiple communities substantially engaged in and/or dependent upon federally managed fisheries in the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Gulf of Alaska management areas. (W-127)​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ 

DOYLE, JamieCONWAY, FlaxenMALDONADO, MartaBOOVY, Bradley, and JOHNSON, Maria (OR State U) Seafood Processor Workers: Exploring the Hidden Faces in Seafood. Much of the focus in seafood is on fishing, but there are other equally important parts of the industry, they are often just not as visible. Our research looks at seafood processor workers in Coos Bay, Oregon; documenting today’s seafood processor workforce, while looking at changes over time. Not only has the management of fishing changed, the demographics of the workers are very different. We explore the demographic changes that have led to the workforce of today, how the demographics are different from the broader community, and consider the future of seafood processing work and its workforce. (W-127)

DRAPER, Suzanne C. (UCF) Charismatic Catholicism, Resting in the Spirit, and Biomedical Narratives: Adaptations to Health and Healing in Yucatán, México. For many Mexican Catholics grappling with illness, health and healing are often sought through both biomedicine and spiritual care. Healing experiences in the medical capacity can be unsatisfying, impersonal, or degrading. Many parishioners attempt to mitigate this issue in their illness journeys through spiritual reverie, raising the question: What does it mean to be “healed?” This research explores the ways that performative elements of Catholic pageantry in charismatic healing masses function to deliver an element of care parishioners find missing in biomedical experiences and examination room practices. I argue that crucial elements of healing mass performances heavily influence Mexican Catholic concepts of healing. (W-93)​​​​​​​ 

DRESSLER, William (U Alabama) Cultural Distance and Depressive Symptoms in Urban Brazil. The spatial metaphor for culture is well-represented in Geertz’s observation that humans are animals suspended in their own webs of significance. Less poetically, this implies that culture is a Euclidean space within which individuals exercise their agency. Cognitive culture theory suggests that culture can be decomposed into three dimensions: shared knowledge (cultural competence); contested knowledge (residual agreement); and social practice (cultural consonance). This paper presents a Euclidean cultural distance metric for locating individuals in this space. The greater the distance from a hypothetical social cynosure, the greater an individual’s reported depression. Advantages and disadvantages of this model are discussed. (TH-39)​​​​​​​ 

DREXLER, Elizabeth (MI State U) Using Ethnographic Methods to Undermine Stigmatizing State Propaganda. Ethnographic methods can open a space of dialogue in contexts of social division and allow students to develop new insights about the use of state propaganda to consign some citizens to a space of civil death. Observation, interviews, and visits to monuments allow performative engagement with the process of creating public memory and the emotional power of propaganda. I draw on teaching ethnographic methods and human rights in Indonesia to explore how ethnographic methods may affectively move individuals and extend the possibilities for dialogue and inclusion. (W-02)​​​​​​​ 

DREXLER, Olivia “Livy” (MI State U) Why Are There So Many Native American Students in Special Education Classrooms? Native American youth are disproportionately represented in special education classrooms, and there is little literature that attempts to explain the high rate of enrollment in special education. In the early stages of my research I have been able to find some causes for the high rate of enrollment, and it has little to nothing to do with the learning capabilities of the students. This research demonstrates how learning, emotional, and behavioral disabilities are constructed for Native American students. As well as why these students are constructed as being disabled, and how their disability status can affect their success in education. (S-42)​​​​​​​ 

DRYDEN, Eileen, HYDE, Justeen, BOLTON, Rendelle, DVORIN, Kelly, WU, Juliet, and BOKHOUR, Barbara (VHA, CHOIR) Navigating the Political Life of Data: Lessons from an Evaluation of Culture Change in the Veterans Health Administration. Sharing data with study participants can be ethically appropriate, a useful form of ‘member-checking,’ and engender further commitment to studies. However, anthropologists often deal in nuanced data making this practice challenging. Additionally, when the aim of data collection is to learn about implementation efforts from the field, this desire to share data can create a tension: as learning occurs, interpretations shift while data, once shared, is fixed and can have a political life of its own. This paper discusses our experience sharing data while evaluating the Veterans Administration’s efforts to transform its culture to a Whole Health System of Care. (S-04)

DU BRAY, Margaret (Augustana Coll), STOTTS, RhianWUTICH, Amber, and BREWIS, Alexandra (ASU) The River Divides Us: (In)Equity in Access to Ecosystem Services. There is often an unspoken assumption that ecosystem services are equitably accessed. From climate change to environmental justice, scholars have demonstrated that disservices are inequitably distributed, and often affect marginalized communities most immediately. Given this, our research asks: how are ecosystem services equitably or inequitably distributed? Using qualitative data from four Anglophone sites collected as part of the 2016 Global Ethnohydrology Study, our research demonstrates the inequity in the distribution of ecosystem services, and shows that community members recognize these disparities. This research shows the importance of local insight when it comes to understanding inequities in access to ecosystem services. (W-126)​​​​​​​ 

DZUBUR, Valerie (Samuel Merritt U) Healing After Migration. This paper will present a story of human migration in the context of war and ethnic cleansing. We now know that human development is disrupted in children, identity forfeited and culture ruptured. More specifically this discussion uses the Bosnian experience of four families that escaped to the United States in 1995. These families escaped the siege of Sarajevo by crawling through the now famous 4 foot tunnel, constructed under the city, to reach the airport. Now twenty years later it is informative to consider the process. (TH-04)

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